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Portrait of Scott M. Paul
Scott M. Paul, MD

Senior Staff Physiatrist

Research Coordinator, Medical Staff Section


Rehabilitation Medicine


BES, Johns Hopkins University
MD, Sackler School of Medicine of the Tel Aviv University


Email: scott.paul@nih.gov
Phone: 301-496-4733

Portrait of Scott M. Paul
Scott M. Paul, MD

Senior Staff Physiatrist

Research Coordinator, Medical Staff Section


Rehabilitation Medicine


BES, Johns Hopkins University
MD, Sackler School of Medicine of the Tel Aviv University


Email: scott.paul@nih.gov
Phone: 301-496-4733


Dr. Scott M. Paul is a Diplomate of the American Board of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation with subspecialty certification in Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine.


He received his Bachelor of Engineering Science in bioengineering from the Johns Hopkins University in 1980. Dr. Paul attended the New York State Student's Program at the Sackler School of Medicine of the Tel Aviv University in Israel and received his medical degree in 1985.

Dr. Paul began his post-graduate medical training at Washington University in St Louis and completed residency in Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Bronx, NY. He continued at Albert Einstein to complete a fellowship in Pediatric Rehabilitation at the Rose F. Kennedy Center.

Prior to joining the NIH in 2001, Dr. Paul was in private practice in Montgomery County, Maryland, with Rehabilitation Medical Director responsibilities at number of local hospitals and rehabilitation facilities.

He previously served as Chief of Physical Medicine at Dayton Children's Medical Center and Director of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at the Hospital for Sick Children in Washington, DC.

Dr. Paul is the Research Coordinator for the Medical Staff Section of the Rehabilitation Medicine Department. He is the principal investigator of a protocol investigating the use of computerized, three dimensional surface imaging to study persons with scoliosis and other trunk deformities.

In addition, he serves as an associate investigator in a number of NIH institute and center protocols including research on osteogenesis imperfecta, polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease, proteus syndrome, and neurofibromatosis type I.

He has authored a number of abstracts, articles and book chapters relating to childhood onset disabilities. He served as an associate editor for PM&R: The journal of injury, function and rehabilitation from 2012 to 2018 and served as the inaugural pediatric editorial board leader of the AAPM&R's online knowledge base, PM&R KnowledgeNOW.

Dr. Paul is also an adjunct assistant professor in the departments of Biomedical Engineering and Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, where he developed and directs a series of courses on Rehabilitation Engineering.

Peer Reviewed Articles

Florenzano, Pablo; Pan, Kristen S; Brown, Sydney M; Paul, Scott M; Kushner, Harvey; Guthrie, Lori C; Fernandez de Castro, Luis; Collins, Michael T; Boyce, Alison M, "Age-related changes and effects of bisphosphonates on bone turnover and disease progression in fibrous dysplasia of bone," Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, accepted

Berglund, Jason A; Tella, Sri Harsha; Tuthill, Kaitlyn F; Kim, Lauren; Guthrie, Lori C; Paul, Scott M; Stanton; Collins, Michael T.; Boyce, Alison M., "Scoliosis in Fibrous Dysplasia/McCune-Albright Syndrome: Factors Associated with Curve Progression and Effects of Bisphosphonates," Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, Volume 33, Number 9, September 2018

Montealegre-Sanchez, Gina A.; …; Paul, Scott M.; …; Macias, William L.; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela, "JAK ½ inhibition with baricitinib in the treatment of autoinflammatory interferonopathies," The Journal of Clinical Investigation, Volume 128, Number 7, July 2018

Wong, Alison L; Wilson, Madeline; Girnary, Sakina; Nojoomi, Matthew; Acharya, Soumyadipta; Paul, Scott M, "The optimal orthosis and motion protocol for extensor tendon injury in zones IV-VIII: A systematic review," Journal of Hand Therapy, Volume 30, Number 4, October-December 2017

Di Gioia, Silvio Alessandro; Connors, Samantha; Matsunami, Norisada; et. al. for the Moebius Syndrome Collaborative Research Consortium (of which Paul, Scott M. is an author), A defect in myoblast fusion underlies Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome, Nature Communications, Volume 8, July 6, 2017

Ktena, Yiouli P.; Paul, Scott M.; Hauser, Natalie S.; Hanna, Glenn; Sloan, Jennifer L.; Gropman, Andrea; Manoli, Irini; Venditti, Charles P., "Delineating the Spectrum of Impairment, Disability and Rehabilitation Needs in Methylmalonic Acidemia," American Journal of Medical Genetics, Volume 167, Number 9, September 2015

Trehan, Aditi; Brady, Jacqueline M.; Golas, Gretchen A.; Lee, Paul R.; Thurm, Audrey; Gropman, Andrea L.; Paul, Scott M.; et.al., "MED23-associated Intellectual Disability in a Non-consanguineous Family," American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A, Volume 167, Number 5, June 2015

Boyce, Alison; Tosi, Laura; Paul, Scott M, "Bisphosphonate Treatment for Children with Disabling Conditions," PM&R: The journal of injury, function, and rehabilitation, Volume 6, Number 5, May 2014

Paul, Scott M.; Gabor, Lisa R.; Rudzinski, Scott; David, Giovanni P.G.; Boyce, Alison M.; Kelly, Marilyn; Collins, Michael T., "Disease Severity and Functional Factors Associated With Walking Performance in Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia," Bone, Volume 60, March 2014

Solomon, Benjamin D.; Baker, Linda A.; Bear, Kelly A.; …Paul, Scott M.; et.al., "An approach to the identification of anomalies and etiologies in neonates with identified or suspected VACTERL (vertebral defects, anal atresia, tracheo-esophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, cardiac anomalies, renal anomalies, and limb anomalies) association," Journal of Pediatrics, Volume 164, Number 3, March 2014

Sibley, Cailin H.; Plass, Nikki; Snow, Joseph; …Paul, Scott M.; et.al., "Sustained Response and Prevention of Damage Progression in Patients With Neonatal-Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease Treated With Anakinra," Arthritis & Rheumatism, Volume 64, Number 7, July 2012

Gabor, Lisa R; Chamberlin, Andrew P; Levy, Ellen; Perry, Monique; Cintas, Holly; Paul, Scott M, "Digital stereophotogrammetry: A new technique to quantify truncal deformity, A pilot study in persons with osteogenesis imperfecta," American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 90, Number 10, October 2011

McDermott, David H.; DeRavin, Suk See; Jun, Hyun Sik; Liu, Qian; Long-Priel, Debra; Noel, Pierre, Takemoto, Cliff; Ojode, Teresa; Paul, Scott M.; et.al., "Severe Congenital Neutropenia due to G6PC3 Deficiency with Increased Neutrophil CXCR4 Expression and Myelokathexis," Blood, Volume 116, Number 15, October 14 2010

Jain, Minal, Danoff, Jerome V., Paul, Scott M., "Correlation between bioelectrical spectroscopy and perometry in assessment of upper extremity swelling", Lymphology, Volume 43, Number 2, June 2010

Drinkard, Bart E., Keyser, Randall E., Paul Scott M., Arena, Ross, Plehn, Jonathan F., Yanovski, Jack A., DiProspero, Nicholas A., "Exercise Capacity and Idebenone Intervention in Children and Adolescents with Friedreich’s Ataxia," Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 91, Number 7, July 2010

Paul, Scott M., Chamberlin, Andrew P., Hatt, Charles, Nayak, Amritha V., Danoff, Jerome V., "Reliability, validity, and precision of an active stereophotogrammetry system for three dimensional evaluation of the human torso," Medical Engineering and Physics, Volume 31, Number 10, December 2009

Paul, Scott M., Siegel, Karen L., Malley James, and Jaeger Robert J., "Evaluating Interventions to Improve Gait in Cerebral Palsy: A Meta-Analysis of Spatio-temporal Measures," Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, Volume 49, Number 7, July 2007

Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Dailey, Natalie; Canna, Scott; …, Paul, Scott M., et.al., "Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease Responsive to Interleukin-1β Inhibition," New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 355, Number 6, August 10, 2006

Harris-Love, Michael O, PhD, Lohmann-Siegel, Karen, PT, Paul, Scott M., MD Benson, Kimberly, "Rehabilitation management of Friedreich ataxia: lower extremity force control variability and gait performance" Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, Volume 18, Number 2, June 2004

Sneed, Raphael C, M.D., May, Warren L., Ph.D., Stencel, Christine, M.A. and Paul, Scott M., M.D., Pediatric Physiatry in 2000: A Survey of Practitioners and Training Programs, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 83, Number 3, March 2002

Paul, Scott M., M.D. and Barlow, Janet, B.S., "Heterotopic Ossification Following Neurological Injury," Journal of Neurorehabilitation, Volume 3, Number 3, Summer 1993

Paul, Scott M., M.D., "Heterotopic Ossification," (letter to the editor), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 73, Number 5, May, 1992

Paul, Scott M., M.D. and Baron, Teri L.,O.T.R "Toileting Device for Patients with Decreased Hand Function", Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 69, Number 2, February, 1988.

Peer Reviewed Abstracts

Prabhakar, Gayathri; Paul, Scott M; "Stability of Stereophotogrammetric Topographic Analysis (SP) of Measures of Pectus Deformities in Healthy Volunteers," (abstract), PM&R, The journal of injury, function and rehabilitation, Volume 6, Number 11 (supplement), November 2014

Paul, Scott M; Prabhakar, Gayathri; Sundar, Swetha; Westover, Lindsey; Parent, Eric; Hill, Doug L., "Stability of Stereophotogrammetric Topographic Analysis of Measures of Scoliosis and Other Types of Truncal Asymmetry in Healthy Volunteers," (abstract), American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 92, Number 3 (supplement) March 2013

Paul, Scott M; Solomon, Benjamin; Muenke, Maximillian; "The Developmental and Functional Spectrum of Holoprosencephaly (HPE)" (abstract), Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, Volume 43, Supplement No. 51, October 2011

Hauser, Natalie S; Paul, Scott M; Gropman, Andrea L; Hanna, Glenn; Sloan, Jennifer; Venditti, Charles P; "The Functional Phenotype of an Inborn Error of Metabolism: Outlining Impairment and Disability in Methylmalonic Acidemia" (abstract), Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, Volume 99, Number 3 (supplement), March 2010

Paul, Scott M; Snow, Joseph; Hildenbrand, Hanna, Jain, Minal S., Smith, Michaele R., Wiggs, Edith; Henderson, Cailin; Comis, Leora; et.al., "Improvement in Functional Outcomes in Patients with NOMID treated with the Recombinant IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Anakinra" (abstract), Arthritis & Rheumatism, Volume 58, Number 10 (supplement), October 2009

Paul, Scott M.; Malhotra, Rachna; Khanna, Malini M.; Widemann, Brigitte C., "Joint Range of Motion in Persons with Neurofbromatosis Type 1," (abstract), PM&R, The journal of injury, function and rehabilitation, Volume 1, Number 10 (supplement), October 2009

Cintas, Holly C; Chien, F; Paul, Scott M., "Spine-specific exercise for scoliosis in individuals with Types III and IV osteogenesis imperfecta" (abstract), Pediatric Physical Therapy, Volume 21, Number 1 (electronic supplement), Spring 2009

Chamberlin, Andrew; Danoff, Jerome and Paul, Scott M., "Stereophotogrammetry (SP) imaging as a non-invasive technique to obtain linear measurements of the torso in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI): comparison to manual methods" (abstract), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 89, Number 11 (electronic supplement), November 2008

Paul, Scott M.; Chamberlin, Andrew; Perry, Monique; Levy, Ellen: and Danoff, Jerome, "Stereophotogrammetry (SP) imaging of nominal features of torso anatomy in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI): comparison to clinical observation (CO)" (abstract), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 89, Number 11 (electronic supplement), November 2008

Marini, Joan C., Obafemi, A. A. ; Abukhaled, Mona K.; Cintas, Holly C. Troendle, J. F.; Letocha, Anne D.; Reynolds, J. C.; Paul, Scott M., "Randomized Dose Comparison of Pamidronate in Children With Types III And IV Osteogenesis Imperfecta 3 vs 6 Month Cycles" (abstract), Calcified Tissue International, Volume 82, Supplement 1, May 2008

Paul, Scott M; Hildenbrand, Hanna, Jain, Minal S., Smith, Michaele R., Wiggs, Edith; Comis, Leora; Koziol, Deloris; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela, "Functional Outcomes of One Year of Treatment of Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (NOMID) with Anakinra" (abstract), Arthritis & Rheumatism, Volume 56, Number 9 (supplement), September 2007

Paul, Scott M.; Ognibene, Frederick P.; Gerber, N. Lynn; "Current Participation and Interest in Research Training for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) Faculty and Residents" (abstract), American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 86, Number 4 (supplement) April 2007

Paul, Scott M.; Namde, Madjimbaye; Hildenbrand, Hanna; Jain, Minal; Smith, Michaele; Canna, Scott; Wiggs, Edith; Comis, Leora; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela, "Functional Outcomes of 1 Year of Treatment of Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease With Anakinra" (abstract), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 87, Number 10 (electronic supplement), November 2006

Paul, Scott M.; Harris-Love, Michael; Croarkin, Earllaine; "Assessment of Upper-Limb Force Control in Children and Adolescents: A New Measure of Coordination Using a Biodex Dynamometer" (abstract), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 87, Number 10 (electronic supplement), November 2006

Paul, Scott M; Rudzinski Scott M; Chaudhry, Usha; David, Giovanni; Kelly, Marilyn; Furst, Gloria; Collins, Michael, "Walking Speed is Associated With Skeletal Disease Burden Score and Hip Strength and Range of Motion in Persons With Polyostotic Fibrous Dysplasia," (abstract), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 87, Number 10 (electronic supplement), November 2006

Paul, Scott M.; Namde, Madjimbaye; Hildenbrand, Hanna; Jain, Minal; Smith, Michaele; Canna, Scott; Wiggs, Edith; Comis, Leora; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela, "Functional Outcomes in NOMID after 12 months of treatment with the IL-1 Receptor antagonist Anakinra" (abstract), Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, Volume 65, July 2006, Supplement II

David, Giovanni Paolo G.; Paul, Scott M.; Cintas, Holly Lea; Gerber, Lynn H.; Marini, Joan C., "Age of onset of scoliosis in osteogenesis imperfecta may be associated with Sillence type but not body mass index" (abstract) , Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 86, Number 9 (electronic supplement), September 2005

Paul, Scott M.; Hildenbrand, Hanna; Jain, Minal; Smith, Michaele; Canna, Scott; Wiggs, Edith; Comis, Leora; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela, "Functional Outcomes of Treatment of Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (NOMID) with Anakinra: Preliminary Results" (abstract), Arthritis & Rheumatism, Volume 52, Number 9 (supplement), September 2005

Canna, Scott; Paul, Scott M.; Hildenbrand, Hanna; Jain, Minal; Smith, Michaele; Comis, Leora; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela, "Functional Characteristics of Children with Neonatal Onset Multisystem Inflammatory Disease (NOMID)" (abstract), Arthritis & Rheumatism, Volume 52, Number 9 (supplement), September 2005

Vanderver, Adeline L, MD; Chang, Taeun; Letocha, Anne D; Gerber, Lynn H, MD; Cintas, Holly, PhD, PT; Paul, Scott M., MD, Vanderver, Glenn, MD; Reynolds, James, MD; Marini Joan C, MD, "Neurologic outcome in osteogenesis imperfecta patients with basilar invagination" (abstract), Annals of Neurology, Volume 56, Suppl. 8, 2004

Burgess, Derrick L., Paul, Scott M., MD; Cintas, Holly, PhD, PT; Lohmann Siegel, Karen PT, Koziol, Deloris PhD, Marini, Joan, MD, PhD, Gerber, Lynn H. MD "Limitation in overall joint mobility is associated with Sillence type in osteogenesis imperfecta" (abstract), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 85, Number 9, September 2004

Paul, Scott M., M.D., Gerber, Lynn H., MD; Lohmann-Siegel, Karen, PT; Cintas, Holly, PT, PhD; Marini, Joan, MD, PhD, Koziol, Delores, PhD, MPH "The Effects of Discrepancy in Total Body Length and Leg Length on Static Pelvic Alignment and Gait" (abstract), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 83, Number 11, November 2002

Paul, Scott M., M.D., Greene, Mary K., M.D., Cohn, Robert, M.D., "Motor Evoked Ultrasound: A New Technique for Assessment of Diaphragmatic Function," (abstract), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 75, Number 10, October 1994

Paul, Scott M., M.D., Chamberlain, Jacqueline, OTR/L, Barnaclo, Randy, "An Innovative Positioning Device for Use in the Treatment of Perinatal Spine Injury," (abstract), Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, Volume 35, Number 9, Supplement Number 69, September 1993

Paul, Scott M., M.D., and Ungar-Paul, Ellen Z., O.T.R. "Rehabilitation Services Delivery in Nursing Homes," (abstract), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 70, Number 10, October 1989.

Paul, Scott M., M.D., Hammerman, Albert, M.D., Stoddard, Elizabeth, M.D., "Heterotopic Ossification Causing Extrinsic Compression of the Deep Venous System of the Lower Extremity", (abstract), Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Volume 69, Number 9, September 1988.

Book Chapters

Paul, Scott M., MD, "Duchenne and Becker Muscular Dystrophy," in AAPM&R KnowledgeNOW, http://now.aapmr.org/peds/neurological/Pages/Duchenne-and-Becker-Muscular-Dystrophy.aspx, Publication Date 10/20/2012

Paul, Scott M., MD, "Transition to Adulthood for Persons with Childhood Onset Disabilities," in AAPM&R KnowledgeNOW, http://now.aapmr.org/rehab-essentials/science-concepts/Pages/Transition-to-Adulthood-for-Persons-with-Childhood-Onset-Disabilities.aspx, Publication Date 10/20/2012

Paul, Scott M., M.D., "Scoliosis and Other Spinal Deformities," Chapter 34 in Frontera, W.; DeLisa, J.; and Gans, B, et.al., eds., DeLisa’s Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Principles and Practice, 5th edition, Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011

Paul, Scott M., M.D., "Neurofibromatosis Type I," Chapter in Nelson, Maureen, ed., Rehabilitation Medicine Quick Reference: Pediatrics, New York, Demos Medical Publishing, 2010

Paul, Scott M., M.D., "Strategies for Adolescents," Chapter 4 in Cintas, H and Gerber, L, eds., Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta: Strategies to Enhance Performance, Gaithersburg, MD, Osteogenesis Imperfecta Foundation, 2005

Paul, Scott M., M.D., "Scoliosis and Other Spinal Deformities," Chapter 29 in DeLisa, J and Gans, B, eds., Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Principles and Practice, 4th edition, Philadelphia, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2004


  • American Academy of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Outstanding Council Service Award, Pediatric Rehabilitation and Developmental Disabilities Council, 2018
  • NCI Director's Award, NF1 SPRINT Trial Team, 2018
  • NIH Director's Award, Ebola Patient Care Response Team, 2015
  • NIH Director's Award, NOMID Group, 2013
  • Harold S. Diner Memorial Lectureship, Rose F. Kennedy CERC, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 2002
  • New York State Regents Physician Shortage Scholarship, 1984
  • New York State Regents Physician Shortage Scholarship, 1983
  • Who's Who Among American College Students, 1980
  • Who's Who Among American High School Students, 1976
  • New York State Regents College Scholarship, 1975

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This page last updated on 03/14/2019

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